Four experiments were conducted on the calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus, to determine the effects of temperature (24, 26, 28, 30, 32, and 34 °C) on survival, development time, reproductive output, and population growth in order to define the optimal temperature for culture. The first experiment stocked early stage nauplii into 1 L beakers and cultured them using standard procedures until five days after the first mature adults were observed; from this survival, sex ratio, time to maturation, and fecundity were measured. The second and third experiments evaluated the effects of temperature on nauplii production by stocking individual pairs and 25 pairs of adults, respectively; in both experiments nauplii production was determined daily for 10 days. The fourth experiment determined the effects of temperature on population growth and composition of the population produced by stocking 10 adult pairs and culturing them for 10 days at six temperatures. Results indicate survival from early nauplii to adult was significantly affected by temperature and those cultured from 24–30 °C had the highest mean survival. Time to first maturation and maturation of the entire population was significantly influenced by temperature and took from 6.8 to 12.8 days. Temperature significantly affected nauplii production in both individual and groups of paired adults. Temperature affected the mean daily nauplii production by decreasing the brood interval but did not affect the mean brood size. The number of nauplii produced by 25 adult pairs was significantly influenced by temperature; the optimal temperature was 27.5 °C at which 1861 nauplii were produced. The distribution of developmental stages in the population was also affected by temperature; at lower temperatures the population consisted of a greater proportion of nauplii while at 32 °C the population was comprised of more advanced staged individuals. When developing production objectives, aquaculturists must consider temperature because it has multiple effects on the culture of P. pelagicus. The optimal temperature range to achieve high survival and the greatest nauplii production is 26–30 °C. To maintain long-term stock cultures the best temperature may be 24 °C to slow maturation and growth while 28–32 °C may be used to maximize nauplii production by decreasing time to maturation and decreasing brood intervals.
Rhyne, A.L., C. Ohs, and E. Stenn. 2009. "The Effects of Temperature on Growth, Reproduction, and Production of the Calanoid Copepod, Pseudodiaptomus Pelagicus, a Species with Potential of Mass Production for use in Aquaculture." Aquaculture 292: 53-59.