Microscopy of biofilms

Document Type

Book Chapter


Published in: Biofouling Methods, 2014.


Identification, visualization and investigation of biofouling microbes are not possible without light, epifluorescence and electron microscopy. The first section of this chapter presents methods of quantification of microbes in biofilms and Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescent in situ hybridization (CARD‐FISH). The second section provides an overview of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) imaging, which focuses mainly on the Fluorescent in situ Hybridization Technique (FISH) technique. This technique is very useful for visualization and quantification of different groups of microorganisms. The third section describes the principles of transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy.