Relationship of connected and separate knowing to parental style and birth order
A total of 249 primarily middle-class, Caucasian college students (141 females, 108 males) completed the Knowing Styles Inventory (KSI) (Knight, Elfenbein, & Messina, 1995) to measure Connected and Separate Knowing and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) (Buri, 1991), used to measure different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting). Authoritative parenting style of the mother was positively associated with Connected Knowing, while authoritative parenting style of the father was negatively related to Separate Knowing for both the female and male participants of the study. For the female participants only, permissive parenting style of the father was positively related to Separate Knowing. It was also found that first-born college students scored significantly higher on Separate Knowing than later-born students. The results suggest that family experiences may be precursors to the epistemologies of college students.
Knight, K., Elfenbein, M., Capozzi, L., Eason, H., Bernardo, M., & Ferus, K. (2000). Relationship of connected and separate knowing to parental style and birth order. Sex Roles, 43 (3-4), 229-240. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007080914728