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From 2014 to 2016, Rhode Island Shellfish growers applied for a series of leases to produce oysters in close proximity to lands used for waterfowl hunting. The emerging conflict between these uses required the relevant agencies to seek modifications to minimize problems and highlighted a need to better understand the relevant authorities governing these agencies. This study provides an overview of how state and federal legal authorities govern the interaction of shellfish leasing and waterfowl management in Rhode Island, including whether shellfish leasing may be considered incidental take under federal law.