The viscosity of germanium during substrate relaxation upon thermal anneal
Journal of Materials Research
Thin-film heterostructures experience structural relaxation when subjected to post-deposition thermal heat treatment. The rate of relaxation, elastic effects, and inelastic effects on the stress and deformation of the structure are determined by the physical properties of the materials, in particular, the solid-phase viscosity. During relaxation, movement of defects causes an increase of viscosity with time at a constant rate as these defects are annihilated. Experimental anneals have been performed on structures with polycrystalline silicon films on (111) germanium substrates, in which the substrate relaxes during thermal annealing. A numerical analysis of the experimental results has determined values for the viscosity and viscosity rate of (111) germanium wafers. In addition four zones of the relaxation process have been identified, and results indicate that the increasing viscosity with time has a larger effect at lower furnace ramp-up rates.
Rosenberg, S., Madras, C., Wong, P., & Miaoulis, I. (1997). The viscosity of germanium during substrate relaxation upon thermal anneal. Journal of Materials Research, 12 (7), 1706-1710. https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1997.0235